1. D.N.A. is in chromosomes
2. Genes are in D.N.A.
3. Genes made up of deoxyribose (suger), phosphates, and 4 nitrogenous
4. D.N.A. stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
5. D.N.A. has four bases: adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine
6. D.N.A. is what makes you different from everyone else
7.Each body cell has 46 chromosomes. Gametes (eggs and sperm) have 23.
8.Each chromosome has 1 meter of DNA compacted in it
9.Scientists can find out about an unborn child by making a karyotype
(a karyotype is a set of all the chromosomes in one cell)
10. Scientists make a karyotype by taking nucleus out of a cell and dying the chromosomes


1. Each piece of under direction of DNA
2. Scientists say that if you stretch all your D.N.A. it could reach the moon and back
3. There are 8,388,608 possible combinations of chromosomes from two parents.
4. When a red blood cell gets “sick” it becomes a sickle cell anemia
5. Sickle cell look like they split in half
6. There two types of twins, identical twins and fraternal twins. The difference is identical twins are when one egg splits into two, and fraternal twins are from two individual eggs.
7.Chromosomes can break and rejoin.
8. When a chromosome breaks it is called a deletion. In one type of deletion, a chromosome loses its centromere (the contracted part of a chromosome) and the two broken parts join back together.

Chromosomes are like boxes full of genes. If you unravel the entire DNA in a chromosome it would be over 1 meter long! Each person has 46 chromosomes in each cell; 42 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes determine whether you are a boy or a girl. Autosomes are all the other 42 chromosomes. Each chromosome has two arms and a constricted area called the centromere. Some chromosomes have their centromere closer to the tip. This type of chromosome is called acrocentric. Some chromosomes have their centromere closer to the center. Then the chromosome is metacentric. A chromosome can also be submetacentric. This is when a chromosome has a centromere that is off center. This is best viewed at mitosis (cell division).

Mitosis is when a cell is dividing. Meiosis the process of making sperm and egg cells. During meiosis, the 46 chromosomes in a cell multiply into 92 chromosomes and split into 2 cells then those cells split into 4 sperm or egg cells. Each egg or sperm has only 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex cell). When a sperm and egg fuse together it creates a zygote (one-celled human). If an egg or sperm has an abnormal number of chromosomes the zygote will have one chromosome more than normal. This is called trisomy. If the zygote ends up with on chromosome less it is called a monosomy. If the zygote has an abnormal number of chromosomes it could get some Disorders such as trisomic, monosomre, and Klinefelter syndromes. That is why scientists look at things called karyotypes.

A karyotype is a diagram of all the chromosomes in a persons cells numbered and sorted by size, largest to smallest. Sometimes the chromosome loses genes. It is called a deletion. There are 2 types of deletions. The first type of deletion is terminal deletion. In terminal deletion, the chromosome loses information on the tips. In interstitial deletions the chromosome breaks, loses information, and rejoins.

Another chromosome disorder is translocation. That is when two chromosomes get their parts mixed up. There are two types of translocations. The first one is called a reciprocal translocation. This is when two chromosomes swap parts evenly. A robertsonian translocation is when two chromosomes fuse at the centromere and the two short arms fall off.

D.N.A. is what determine your eye color, hair color, what gender you are, what color your skin is and every thing else about you. There are two type of twins. Identical twins and Fraternal twins. Fraternal twins come from two different eggs. But Identical twins are one egg split in two and they have the same D.N.A.

D.N.A. is like a ladder. The rungs on the ladder are the base pairs. The base pairs form the genetic code. A will always go with T and G will always go with C. With these combinations you can make up sentences to say what color your eye’s are or whether your hair is strait or curly. Living things are made of different combinations of DNA (genes) are the code for arranging amino acids into a chain. These are some of the letter combinations you will get.

Amino acids M RNA codons

Alanine GCU GCC GCA GCG

Arginine CGA CGU CGC CGG AGA AGG

Asparagine AAU AAC

Aspartate GAU GAC

Cystiene UGU UGC

Glutamate GAA GAG

Glutamine CAG CAA

Glycine GGA GGC GGU GGG

Histidine CAU CAC

Isoleucine AUC AUU AUA

Leucine UUA UUG CUU CUC CUACUG

Lysine AAA AAG

Methionine AUG

Phenylalanine UUU UUC

Proline CCA CCC CCU CCG

Serine UCG UCU UCA UCC AGU AGC

Threonine ACU ACC ACG ACA

Tryptophan UGG

Tyrosine UAU UAC

Valine GUU GUC GUA GUG

Terminator UAA UAG UGA

Initiator AUG

Genes DNA was discovered in 1865. They are instruction manuals or blue prints for you’re body. You have 50% of you’re Mothers genes and 50% of you’re father’s genes. Most of the time you look like one of you’re parents. Parents have dominant Genes and Recessive genes. The dominant gene is the more dominant or powerful over the other gene in the DNA strand. The recessive gene is the gene that is the least dominant or powerful in the DNA strand. Genes carry a specific protein called hemoglobin and oxygen. DNA is made up of genes. When cells get “sick” they become sickle cells that look like a sickle.