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In Minecraft, you are 2 blocks high and can only jump up 1 block at a time.All blocks have specific tools used to harvest the specific block faster. Also, most blocks in minecraft do not obey the laws of phisics, so if you place a block it will float.This is implied to all blocks unless stated otherwise.If you attemt to mine a block without the specified tool, the block will break and produce nothing in return.

Name-Dirt
Function-Farming and Building
Tool-Any most efficient with Shovel
Overview-To me, dirt is the ultimate tool for creating buildings/shelters in minecraft. This stuff is just everywhere! Although you cannot craft anything with dirt, i find it always helpful to have a chest to store dirt in.There is another reason to keep dirt, you can farm plants like sugar cane only on dirt.

Name-Wood
Function-Burning and Crafting Wooden Planks
Tool-Any,most efficient with Axe
Overview-Wood grows on trees (DUH).There are three types of wood,Oak,Pine and Birch. Oak is the most common type of tree/wood. Wood is usualy placed in an asthetic sense.Depending on where it is, it usually looks good.Wood can be used to craft Wooden Planks,one of the most important blocks in Minecraft.

Name-Wooden Planks
Function-Crafting
Tool-Any, most efficient with Axe
Overview-Wooden Planks are the foundamentals of Minecraft. You use Wooden Planks to create crafting boxes. Without crafting boxes, there would be no Minecraft. Once you have created a crafting box, Wooden Planks are a vital component of many crafting recipes. In fact, it is needed to create any tools due to the fact that with Wooden Planks you create sticks.You also use Wooden Planks to craft very low level tools.

Name-Stone
Function-Building and Crafting
Tool-Pick Axe
Overview-Stone is usualy located under a surface layer of dirt.Stone is stronger than wood.Once you mine a block of stone, it will become Cobblestone unless you put it in a furnace to regain its original texture.

Name-CobbleStone
Function-Building and Crafting
Tool-Pick Axe
Overview-Cobble stone is the result of mining a block of stone.You use Cobblestone to create furnaces and low level tools. Once you create a furnace, you can refine ores and cook pork chops.Cobblestone would normaly be placed for asthetics or used to craft low level tools.

Name-Sand
Function-Crafting
Tool-Shovel
Overview-Sand is mosly used for making glass,among other (mostly useless) objects.You insert glass into a furnace and burn it.The other interesting thing about Sand is that if it doesnt have any blocks under it, it will fall.Also, Cactus can only be placed on sand.

Name-Gravel
Function-Obtaining flint
Tool-Shovel
Overview-Gravel is mostly found in cave/pits. Surface gravel is rare.The only real use for gravel is to obtain flint. Flint is used to make Flint and Steel (AKA lighter). There is a 10% chance that you will get flint from harvesting a block of gravel. Lastly, Gravel is one of the 2 blocks that obey the laws of physics.If you do not have blocks under a block of gravel, it will fall.

Name-Coal Ore
Function-Obtaining Coal
Tool-Pick Axe
Overview-Coal ore is usualy found in caves. There is a possability of finding Coal Ore in the side of a mountain or on a patch of surface stone. Coal lumps are obtained from mining a blobk of Coal Ore. When combined with a stick, Coal lumps create torches. Torches emit light, usefull anywhere.You may also burn coal lumps in a furnace as a sustitute for things like wood.

Name-Iron Ore
Function-Obtaining Iron Ingots
Tool-Stone and higher level Pick Axes
Overview-Iron Ore is usually found in caves.There is a possability of finding Iron Ore in the side of a mountain, although rare. You can only break a Iron Ore block with Stone tools and higher level tools, not wood. Once obtained, you put a block of Iron Ore in a furnace and burn it. This will produce an iron ingot, a item used for in multiple crafting recipes such as its own level of Normal level tools and Armor.

Name-Diamond Ore
Function-Obsaining Diamond
Tool-Iron and higher level Pick Axes
Overview-Diamond Ore is usually refered to as the most valuable block in Minecraft. You can only mine it with Iron and higher level tools. Once you obtain a diamond gem, you can craft it into the series of high level tools and armour.