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APA Format for Citing Resources

All resources used must be listed (cited).

An extended essay must be reflect intellectual honesty in research practices and provided the reader with the exact sources of quotations, ideas and points of view through accurate bibliographies and referencing. Producing accurate citations, referencing and a bibliography is a skill that students should be seeking to perfect. Documenting the research in this way is vital: it allows readers to evaluate the evidence for themselves, and it shows student’s understanding of the importance of the source used.

Failure to comply with this requirement will be viewed as plagiarism and will, be treated as a case of malpractice.

Remember to record sources as your research progresses (rather than trying to reconstruct a list at the end)

Documentation Style

CBE teaches the APA style and it is recommended that you use this style as there are many helps available on the school’s Extended Essay website and in the Media Centre. It is important that you be consistent in using a style, whichever one you choose to use.

What is a bibliography? (called References in APA style)

A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay, but were important in informing the approach taken, should be cited in the introduction or an acknowledgment. The bibliography (or reference list) should list only those sources cited. There are a number of different documentation styles available for use when writing research paper; most are appropriate in some academic disciplines but not others. The supervisor should help student decide on a style for the particular subject of the essay. It is important to remember that, whatever style is chosen, it must be applied consistently. When choosing the documentation style, the student needs to have a clear understanding of how it is to be used before embarking on the research task. The documentation style should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes. This is good practice, not only for producing a high quality final product, but also for reducing the opportunities and temptation to plagiarize.

What is a Citation?

A citation is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. A reference provides all the information needed to final the source material. References must be cited because they acknowledge the source used an enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented.

Citations (also called references) must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. They can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspaper, emails, internet sites and interviews.

Internet citations should include the title of the extract used as well as the web site address, the date it was accessed and if possible, the author. Caution should be exercised with information on web sites that do not give references or that cannot be cross-checked against other source. The more important a particular point is to the essay, the more the quality of its source needs to be evaluated.

Any references to interviews should state the name of the interviewer, the name of the interviewee, the date and the place of the interview.

What is an In-text citation?

An in-text citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, which is then linked to the full reference at the end of the essay. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular documentation style that has been chosen. Page numbers should normally be given when referencing printed material: in some styles this will be in the citation, in others in the full reference. Once again, it is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources.

Dawson College has an excellent help page for doing these In-text APA citations.

The Owl at Purdue also describes how to format your in-text citations.


How to format your resources

APA Format for Student Research document - based on the APA manual - gives examples for different types of sources.

APA References - Dawson College

APA Formatting and Style Guide - The Owl At Purdue



The following sites will provide a template to help you format your references: - helps you find and format resources. You need to register but it is free. You will need to alphabetize the entries afterwards.

NoodleBib Express - (Starter account is free)

Academic honesty

The student is ultimately responsible for ensuring that his or her extended essay is authentic, with the work or ideas of others fully and correctly acknowledged. Additionally, it isthe responsibility of a supervisor to confirm that, for each student he or she has supervised, to the best of his or her knowledge, the version of the extended essay submitted for assessment is the authentic work of the student.

Both plagiarism and collusion are forms of malpractice that incur a penalty. The same piece of work, or two versions of the same work, cannot be submitted to meet the requirements of both the extended essay and another assessment component of a subject contributing to the diploma or an additional certificate.