Industry Terminology

Num A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W



D/A: Documentation on Acceptance: see also D/P.


DAM: Digital Asset Management


DATA: Information. A representation of facts, ideas, or instruction in a manner suitable for communicator interpretation by human or automatic means.


Data Collection Terminal, Fixed: A stationary terminal that is connected to a host as part of a data collection system. Input sources include bar code, mag stripe, key entry, radio transmission, and voice. Can be batch or real-time/on-line.


Data Collection Terminal, Portable: A hand-held or vehicle-mounted terminal that collects and processes data from bar-code readers, key entry, magnetic stripe, radio transmission, etc. Can be batch or real-time/on-line.


Data Communications: The electronic transmission of data, usually in computer readable form, using a variety of transmission vehicles and paths.


Data Element: In an EDI standard, the smallest named item of information that can convey data. Analogous to a database field.


Data Identifier: Assigned character(s) within a bar-code symbol defining general category or specific use of data encoded in the symbol.


Data Mart: A data warehouse-like approach limited to a single function or purpose, such as promotion planning.


Data Mining: Using software to discover patterns within a database. It uses approaches such as neural networks, case-based reasoning, and decision-tree algorithms.


Data Retailing: The user interface front end typically involving an on-line analytical processing system, decision support system, or executive information system. Data warehousing is the back end.


Data Segment: An intermediate unit of information in a defined sequence identified by a data segment identifier.


Data Warehouse: A large database designed to streamline analysis (rather than to streamline transaction processing). It consists of cleansed (ideally) data and metadata (data about the data).


Date Code: A label on products with the date of production. In food industries, it is often an integral part of the lot number.


Days of Supply: Measure of quantity of inventory-on-hand, in relation to number of days for which usage which will be covered. For example, if a component is consumed in manufacturing at the rate of 100 per day, and there are 1,585 units available on-hand, this represents 15.85 days supply.


DC: Distribution Center.


DC/WMS: Distribution Center/Warehouse Management System. See WMS.


DCAD: Data Collection and Distribution.


DCC: Dedicated Contract Carriage-dedicated contract transport service.


DCF: Discounted Cash Flow


DCM: Distribution Channel Management-strategic management of direct and indirect supply channels. Also Demand Chain Management.


DDE: Direct Data Entry


DDP: Delivery with Duty Paid: see also "DDU".


DDU: Delivery with Duty Unpaid: or "Delivered Duty Unpaid". See also "DDP".


Deadhead: The return of an empty transportation container to its point of origin. See: backhauling.


Deadheading: The costly return trip of an empty transportation container. Opposite of backhauling.


Deals: Promotional/pricing terms offered by suppliers.


Debit Card: A magnetic stripe card (commonly an ATM card) used at POs for customer purchases. It avoids providing credit by instantly withdrawing the purchase payment

from the card owner's bank account. See ATM Card. Also called a check card.


Decision Support System (DSS): Software that speeds access and simplifies data analysis, queries, etc. within a database management system. Often the basis of an executive information system. See Data Retailing.


Decoder: The electronic package that receives signals from a scanner, translates the signals into meaningful data, and interfaces to other devices.


Decomposition: A method of forecasting where time series data are separated into up to three components: trend, seasonal, and cyclical; where trend includes the general horizontal upward or downward movement over time; seasonal includes a recurring demand pattern such as day of the week, weekly, monthly, or quarterly; and cyclical includes any repeating, non-seasonal pattern. A fourth component is random, that is, data with no pattern. The new forecast is made by projecting the patterns individually determined and then combining them.


Dedicated Contract Carriage: A third-party service that dedicates equipment (vehicles) and drivers to a single customer for its exclusive use on a contractual basis.


Delivery-Duty-Paid: Supplier/manufacturer arrangement in which suppliers are responsible for the transport of the goods they have produced, which is being sent to a manufacturer. This responsibility includes tasks such as ensuring products get through Customs.


Demand Chain: Another name for the supply chain, with emphasis on customer or end-user demand pulling materials and product through the chain.


Demand Chain Management: Same as supply chain management, but with emphasis on consumer pull vs. supplier push


Demand Planning: The process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing, all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval. The sales forecast is comprised of the following concepts: o The sales forecasting level is the focal point in the corporate hierarchy where the forecast is needed at the most generic level, i.e. Corporate forecast, Divisional forecast, Product Line forecast, SKU, SKU by Location. o The sales forecasting time horizon generally coincides with the time frame of the plan for which it was developed, i.e. Annual, 1-5 years, 1- 6 months, Daily, Weekly, Monthly. o The sales forecasting time interval generally coincides with how often the plan is updated, i.e. Daily, Weekly, Monthly, and Quarterly.


Demand Planning Systems: The systems that assist in the process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing, all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval.


Demand Pull: The triggering of material movement to a work centre only when that work centre is ready to begin the next job. It in effect eliminates the queue from in front of a work centre, but it can cause a queue at the end of a previous work centre.


Demand Side Analysis: Techniques such as market research, surveys, focus groups, and performance/cost modeling used to identify emerging technologies.


Demand Supply Balancing: The process of identifying and measuring the gaps and imbalances between demand and resources in order to determine how to best resolve the variances through marketing, pricing, packaging, warehousing, outsource plans or some other action that will optimize service, flexibility, costs, assets (or other supply chain inconsistencies) in an iterative and collaborative environment


Demographic Segmentation: In marketing, dividing potential markets by characteristics of potential customers, such as age, sex, income, and education.


Demurrage: The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond a specified loading or unloading time. Also see: Detention, Express


Denied Party List (DPL): A list of organizations that are unauthorized to submit a bid for an activity or to receive a specific product. For example, some countries have bans for certain products such as weapons or sensitive technology.


Depreciation: An accounting convention to spread out cost for equipment over the "life" of the asset, rather than in a single business year.


Depth of Field: The distance between the farthest and closest points within which a bar-code reader can read bar codes.


Destination-Enhanced Consolidation: Ganging of smaller shipments to cut cost, often as directed by a system or via pooling with a third party.


Detention: The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond a specified loading or unloading time. Also see: Demurrage, Express


DEX/UCS: Direct Exchange UCS. A process that updates a retailer's store systems and a supplier's systems about direct store deliveries as they occur using a device carried by delivery personnel. See NEX/UCS.


Direct Cost: A cost that can be directly traced to a cost object since a direct or repeatable cause-and- effect relationship exists. A direct cost uses a direct assignment or cost causal relationship to transfer costs. Also see: Indirect Cost, Tracing


Direct Load: A trailer load of merchandise that travels directly from the vendor to a retail store(s).


Direct Retail Locations: A retail location that purchases products directly from your organization or responding entity.


Direct Store Delivery (DSD): Process of shipping direct from a manufacturer's plant or distribution centre to the customer's retail store, thus bypassing the customer's distribution centre. Also called Direct-to-Store Delivery


Direct-to-Store (DTS) Delivery: Same as Direct Store Delivery.


DISA: Data Interchange Standards Association, which administers EDIFACT and ANSI X.12 standards for EDI.


Disaster Recovery Planning: Contingency planning specifically related to recovering hardware and software (e.g. data centre's, application software, operations, personnel, telecommunications) in information system outages.


Discounted Cash Flow: An analysis in which future cash flows are converted, or discounted, to their value at the present time. The rate of return for an investment is that interest rate at which the present value of all related cash flow equals zero.


Dispatch: Department responsible for scheduling the movement of merchandise loaded on trailers to the stores.


Distributed Data Processing: An information system approach in which computers are linked together and processing occurs in many places rather than in a large, centralized computer system.


Distribution: Outbound logistics, from the end of the production line to the end user. 1) The activities associated with the movement of material, usually finished goods or service parts, from the manufacturer to the customer. These activities encompass the functions of transportation, warehousing, inventory control, material handling, order administration, site and location analysis, industrial packaging, data processing, and the communications network necessary for effective management. It includes all activities related to physical distribution, as well as the return of goods to the manufacturer. In many cases, this movement is made through one or more levels of field warehouses. Synonym: Physical Distribution. 2) The systematic division of a whole into discrete parts having distinctive characteristics.


Distribution Centre (DC): The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending distribution to the appropriate stores.


Distribution Channel: One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer.


Distribution Planning: The planning activities associated with transportation, warehousing, inventory levels, materials handling, order administration, site and location planning, industrial packaging, data processing, and communications networks to support distribution.


Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP): A system of determining demands for inventory at distribution centre's and consolidating demand information in reverse as input to the production and materials system.


Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II): The extension of distribution requirements planning into the planning of the key resources contained in a distribution system: warehouse space, workforce, money, trucks, freight cars, etc.


Distributor: A business that does not manufacture its own products, but purchases and resells these products. Such a business usually maintains a finished goods inventory. Synonym: Wholesaler.


DM: Depot Manager or "Depot Maintenance".


DOA: Dead On Arrival-imperfect delivery.


Dock: Temporary location in Receiving and Shipping areas where freight (on pallets) is stacked until slotted in the Distribution Centre or loaded on a trailer.


Dock Plate: Metal ramp used to connect trailer and dock.


Dock-to-Stock: A program by which specific quality and packaging requirements are met before the product is released. Pre-qualified product is shipped directly into the customer's inventory. Dock-to-stock eliminates the costly handling of components, specifically in receiving and inspection and enables product to move directly into production.


Document: In EDI, a form, such as an invoice or a purchase order, that trading partners have agreed to exchange and that the EDI software handles within its compliance-checking logic.


DOG: Daily Order Generation


DOI: Date of Invoice. Used to calculate the payment terms from the date of the invoice.


DOT: Department of Transport (e.g. US): UK title is now "Department for Transport" (DfT).


Double Order Point System: A distribution inventory management system that has two order points. The smallest equals the original order point, which covers demand during replenishment lead time. The second order point is the sum of the first order point plus normal usage during manufacturing lead time. It enables warehouses to forewarn manufacturing of future replenishment orders.


DP: Duty Paid - see also DUP.


DPO: Documentary Proof of Origin


Drop: A location where a trailer stops to load/unload merchandise.


Drop And Hook: An empty trailer is dropped at a vendor and a loaded trailer is pick up.


DRP: See Distribution Resource Planning.


DSD: Direct to Store Delivery - a retail delivery which has not passed through an RDC.


DSS: See Decision Support Systems.


DTD: Door-to-Door delivery service.


D-Type Warehouse: A Customs Warehouse (i.e. where goods are not subject to excise duty) where the value, nature and quantity of goods stored is established when the goods arrive (but not when they leave). See also A, C, E.


DUP: Duty Unpaid


Duty: A federal tax levied on some imported goods and services.


DWT: Dead Weight Tonnage - ship's cargo capacity.


Dynamic Deployment: A practice of looking to multiple distribution points and replenishing product from a non-traditional distribution point due to a shortage at the traditional distribution point.


Dynamic Process Control (DPC): Continuous monitoring of process performance and adjustment of control parameters to optimize process output.

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