Industry Terminology

Num A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W




EAI: Enterprise Application Integration: business initiative for linking all IT systems.


EAN: European Article Number: International product marking bar-code standard; most scanning devices capable of reading UPC codes can interpret EAN.


EAR: Export Administration Regulations (US).


EAS: Electronic Article Surveillance: The protection of merchandise by the attachment of electronically sensed tags.


eBPO: Electronic Business Process Optimization - see BPO.


EBT: Electronic Benefits Transfer. Electronically-transmitted money for food stamps, welfare, social security benefits, etc. Mandated by the federal government to replace paper coupons.


E-Business: A buzzword that has been adulterated at Internet speed. Now generally refers to any form of Internet- or extranet- or EDI-based linkages to customers, retailers, or other areas of an enterprise.


EC: Electronic Commerce.


E-Commerce: See E-Business.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ): An inventory model that determines how much to order by determining the amount that will meet customer service levels while minimizing total ordering and holding costs.


Economic Value Added (EVA): A measurement of shareholder value as a company's operating profits after tax, less an appropriate charge for the capital used in creating the profits.


Economy of Scale: A phenomenon whereby larger volumes of production reduce unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a larger quantity.


ECR: Efficient Consumer Response. Similar to Quick Response, but tailored to the grocery industry. ECR also involves promotion and forward buying improvements not traditionally associated with QR.


EDI: Electronic Data Interchange: A computer-to-computer communication of data in a standardized format, permitting the receiver to perform functions of a standard business transaction. EDI is administered by VICS for general merchandise, and by the UCC for grocery.


EDI Mapping Software: Converts EDI-format data to a user's internal format. See EDI Translation Software.


EDI Standards: Criteria that define the data content and format requirements for specific business transactions (e.g. purchase orders). Using standard formats allows companies to exchange transactions with multiple trading partners easily. Also see: American National Standards Institute, Uniform Code Council


EDI Translation Software: Converts data from user-internal format to EDI standard format; performs functions such as communications, data extraction, report printing, host upload/download. See EDI Mapping Software.


EDI Transmission: A functional group of one or more EDI transactions that are sent to the same location, in the same transmission, and are identified by a functional group header and trailer.


EDIFACT: International EDI for Administration Commerce and Trade, administered by DISA.


EDLP: Every Day Low Price strategy. Contrasts with High-Low (or promotional) strategy.


Efficient Consumer Response (ECR): A demand driven replenishment system designed to link all parties in the logistics channel to create a massive flow-through distribution network. Replenishment is based upon consumer demand and point of sale information.


EFT: See Electronic Funds Transfer


EFTA: European Free Trade Association: free trade area currently comprising four member states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Sweden. See also EU.


EFTPoS: Electronic Funds Transfer Point of Sale: EPoS (q.v.) for financial data.


EHS: Electronic Home Shopping: shopping via the Internet.


EIS: Executive Info Systems. An easy-to-use, friendly Decision Support System.


Electronic Commerce (EC): Also written as e-commerce. Conducting business online. In the traditional sense of selling goods, it is possible to do this electronically because of certain software programs that run the main functions of an e-commerce website, such as product display, online ordering, and inventory management. The definition of e-commerce includes business activity that is business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C).


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Intercompany, computer-to-computer transmission of business information in a standard format. For EDI purists, "computer-to-computer" means direct transmission from the originating application program to the receiving, or processing, application program, and an EDI transmission consists only of business data, not any accompanying verbiage or free- form messages. Purists might also contend that a standard format is one that is approved by a national or international standards organization, as opposed to formats developed by industry groups or companies.


Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): A computerized system that processes financial transactions and information about these transactions or performs the exchange of value. Sending payment instructions across a computer network, or the company-to-company, company-to-bank, or bank to- bank electronic exchange of value.


Electronic Mail (E-Mail): The computer-to-computer exchange of messages. E-mail is usually unstructured (free- form) rather than in a structured format. X.400 has become the standard for e-mail exchange.


Electronic Signature: A form of authentication that provides identification and validation of a transaction by means of an authorization code identifying the individual or organization


E-mail: See Electronic Mail


Empties: A type of returnable transport packaging generally subject to a deposit.


EMU: Economic and Monetary Union. The process by which several countries in Europe are unifying their monetary systems around a new, single currency called the euro.


Encryption: The scrambling of data and access codes to prevent unauthorized access.


End-of-Life Inventory: Inventory on hand that will satisfy future demand for products that are no longer in production at your entity.


Engineering Change: A revision to a drawing or design released by engineering to modify or correct a part. The request for the change can be from a customer or from production, quality control, another department, or a supplier. Synonym: Engineering Change Order.


Engineering Change Order (ECO): A documented and approved revision to a product or process specification.


Engineer-to-Order: Process by which a product is customized to customer specifications, which requires unique engineering design or significant customization by the producer of the product. Also called design-to-order.


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: A class of software for planning and managing "enterprise-wide"the resources needed to take customer orders, ship them, account for them and replenish all needed goods according to customer orders and forecasts. Often includes electronic commerce with suppliers. Examples of ERP systems are the application suites from SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft and others.


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: A class of software for planning enterprise wide from one central database the resources needed to take customer orders, ship them, account for them, and replenish all needed goods according to customer orders and forecasts. Often includes electronic commerce with suppliers.


EOQ - Economic Order Quantity


Epos: Electronic Point of Sale: system for capturing sales data at the checkout.


EPS: Earnings Per Share


EPU: Entry Processing Unit


ER: Efficient Replenishment or Effective Replenishment: a facet of ECR.


ERM: E-business Relationship Management: the new CRM (q.v.).


ESP: Events Stock Planning: planning technique for those without Extra Sensory Perception.


ETA: Estimated Time of Arrival


Ethernet: A computer term for the most commonly used type of local area network (LAN) communication protocol using coaxial or twisted pair wiring.


Ethical standards: A set of guidelines for proper conduct by business professionals.


E-Type Warehouse: A public Customs Warehouse (i.e. where goods are not subject to excise duty) where trader and trader's system are authorized for warehousing, with goods stored at notified storage facilities. See A, C, D. Also "Electronic" (i.e. online), as in "E-Commerce", "E-Category Management", etc.


EUL: Efficient Unit Loads


EURO: the common currency of 11 participating countries within the European Union - from 1 January 2002. Also sometimes used as a short form of "Europe".


European Article Numbering: A numbering system introduced in 1977 and based on the BBN for unique article identification.


Exception Processing: Exception processing is necessary when the electronic Matching system is unable to reconcile the invoice.(Manual Intervention)


Exception-Based Processing: Applications that automatically highlight particular events or results that fall outside pre-determined parameters. This saves considerable effort by automatically finding problems and alerting the right persons.


Exempt Carrier: A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation. Trucks hauling certain commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carriers transports agricultural commodities or seafood.


Exponential Smoothing Forecast: In forecasting, a type of weighted moving average forecasting technique in which past observations are geometrically discounted according to their age. The heaviest weight is assigned to the most recent data. The smoothing is termed exponential because data points are weighted in accordance with an exponential function of their age. The technique makes use of a smoothing constant to apply to the difference between the most recent forecast and the critical sales data, thus avoiding the necessity of carrying historical sales data. The approach can be used for data that exhibit no trend or seasonal patterns. Higher order exponential smoothing models can be used for data with either (or both) trend and seasonality


Export: 1) In logistics, the movement of products from one country to another. For example, significant volumes of cut flowers are exported from The Netherlands to other countries of the world. 2) A computer term referring to the transfer of information from a source (system or database) to a target.


Exports: A term used to describe products produced in one country and sold in another. Also see: Export


Express: 1) Carrier payment to its customers when ships, rail cars, or trailers are unloaded or loaded in less than the time allowed by contract and returned to the carrier for use. See: demurrage, detention. 2) The use of priority package delivery to achieve overnight or second day delivery.


Extensible Markup Language (XML): A computer term for a language that facilitates direct communication among computers on the Internet. Unlike the older hypertext markup language (HTML), which provides HTML tags giving instructions to a Web browser about how to display information, XML tags give instructions to a Web browser or to application software about the category of information.


Extranet: A computer term describing a private network (or a secured link on the public Internet) that links separate organizations and that uses the same software and protocols as the Internet. Used for improving supply chain management. For example, extranet's are used to provide access to a supply chain partner's internal inventory data which is not available to unrelated parties. Antonym: Intranet.

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